...it's all about the petroleum field in Tanzania.


    Source: ChevronTexaco Corporation
  • Natural gas comes from two sources:

  1. From source rocks rich in organic material from plants.
  2. From normal oils converted to gas due to excessive heat from deep burial.

  • Natural gases fall into two categories:

  1. Combustible
    (methane, ethane, propane, butane, & hydrogen). Methane is the most
    abundant, comprising almost 80% of combustible gases. There are two
    types of combustible gas: dry gas (usually from rock sources and
    exposure to thermal and bacterial conditions) and wet gas (contains
    higher hydrocarbons and is generally associated with oil accumulations).
    75% of gas resources are combustible.
  2. Non-combustible (nitrogen, carbon dioxide, & hydrogen sulfide).

  • Gas source rocks are more widespread and abundant than oil source rocks.

  • Gas is being depleted at a much slower rate than oil due to the high cost of transporting gas (especially from remote areas).

  • As
    much as 80% or more of gas is recoverable from a well/source versus
    about 50% of oil since oil tends to adhere to the sand grains in the

  • Gas
    is commonly re-injected into oil wells to maintain pressure and enhance
    oil production. Once oil production falls to a low level, many then
    convert the oil field into a gas field.

Natural Gas Basics

gas and crude oil are called hydrocarbons because both are composed of
carbon and hydrogen atoms. Natural gas molecules are generally shorter;
four carbon atoms or less. Crude oil molecules contain five or more
carbon atoms per molecule.

gas is both a clean burning fuel source and the primary feedstock into
the U.S. petrochemical industry. Raw natural gas in fields is processed
to separate the methane out from butane, propane, and large amounts of
ethane. The three heavier liquids are prone to condensation in natural
gas pipelines.

Natural Gas Liquids and Petrochemicals

– One carbon atom; chemical formula CH4. The principal use of methane
is as a fuel. The natural gas that is delivered to your home is almost
pure methane. Methane is also an upstream component of many important
industrial chemicals:
  • Methanol
    – A primary raw material in automotive windshield wash and also used as
    a racing fuel. Chemical derivatives of methanol also play an important
    role in our everyday lives:

– Two carbon atoms; chemical formula C2H6. Ethane is the second-largest
component of natural gas, typically comprising up to 6% of the volume
of gas produced from a natural gas field.

  • Ethylene
    – The vast majority of ethane is consumed in the production of ethylene
    by steam cracking. Consumer products made from ethylene derivatives
    represent a large part of the petrochemical industry here in the U.S.:

– Three carbon atoms; chemical formula C3H8. Truck fleets, forklifts,
barbecue grills, portable stoves and even the new Roush Ford F-150
pick-up use propane fuel. Propane’s octane rating is noticeably higher
than gasoline at 110.

Many homes not
connected to municipal (methane) gas pipelines use propane for their
appliances and furnaces. Other fuel uses for propane:

  • Refrigerators.
  • Flamethrowers.
  • Hot air balloons.
  • Fuel for explosions and other special effects in theme parks and movies.

Butane – Four carbon atoms; chemical formula C4H10. Primary fuel uses for butane are:

  • Bottled fuel for cooking and camping.
  • Fuel for cigarette lighters.
  • A propellant in aerosol sprays.
  • As refrigerants.

Natural Gas Quality

Gas quality standards
vary depending on the pipeline system and are usually a function of
each pipeline system’s design and the markets that it serves. In
general, the standards specify that the natural gas be within a specific
range of heating value. In the U.S., gas must generally be should be
1.035 MMBtu per cubic foot of gas at 1 atmosphere and 60 °F.

Sour Gas
Natural gas that contains detectable amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
is called sour gas. It’s a poisonous gas that is also very corrosive.
Hydrogen sulfide must be removed from raw gas by rather expensive
equipment at the well site to prevent corrosion damage to well site
pipes and equipment as well as to meet utility pipeline gas specs. As
H2S is particularly dangerous to humans, a typical pipeline limit for
hydrogen sulfide would be in the range of 4 parts per million per 100
standard cubic feet.

Sweet Gas – Natural gas that does not contain hydrogen sulfide is considered sweet gas.

Wet Gas – Wet
gas is natural gas that contains naturally liquid hydrocarbons (called
“condensate”) with the chemical composition of gasoline. Refineries pay a
slightly lower price for condensate than they do for crude oil because
the octane of condensate is very low.

Updated: January 9, 2015 — 5:33 AM


Add a Comment
  1. Oi lá , Sim isto n. é realmente fastidioso e aprendi muitas coisas de
    sobre blogging. Obrigado.

  2. Excellent post. I will be facing some of these issues as well..

  3. Actually no matter if someone doesn’t be aware of then its up to other users that they will
    assist, so here it happens.

  4. May the good Lord bless u always!

  5. This is very interesting, You’re a very
    skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of
    your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!

  6. Thanls foor sharing yоur ideas. I mіght alo lіke to ѕtate thast
    video games hаve ƅeen ever evolving. Modern technology and innovations һave made it
    simpler to cгeate genuine and fun games. Τhese entertainment video games wsre not гeally sensіble
    when the concept was firѕt of alⅼ beeing tried out.Just liҝе ᧐ther fkrms
    of technological innovation, video games tooo һave hhad to advance by many ages.
    Ƭhіs itself is testimony to the fɑѕt growth ᧐ff viideo games.

    I hqve observed thqt іn the worl of today, video gqmes ѡill Ƅе the ⅼatest popularity ѡith children of aⅼl ages.
    Periodically іt maay be not рossible to dra yoսr son orr daughter аway frm tthe activities.
    If yοu wаnt the best of botһ worlds, there arе numerous educational games f᧐r kids.
    Interesting post.
    One mlre issue іs video games ɑrе normally serious naturally with the main focus on mastering rɑther than entertainment.
    Ꭺlthough, wе have an entertainment factor t᧐ keeⲣ your children engaged, ϳust about every game іs frequently designed tߋ work
    with a specific set օf skills or program, ѕuch as math cooncepts or science.
    Τhanks ffor your publication.
    І һave discovered ѕome considerations through yor site post.

    Օne other stuff I woulⅾ like tօ state is that there аre vaгious games ɑvailable and ᴡhich arre designed
    ρarticularly for toddler age little ߋnes. They incorporate pattern identification,
    colors, wildlife, аnd models. Tһese usuallʏ focus on familiarization іnstead οf memorization. Ꭲhiѕ ԝill keеp ɑ child occupied
    ѡithout haѵing the experience like thеy are studying.

    One moгe issue іs that video gaming hаs become ߋne օf tһe
    all-tіmе most imрortant forms of fun for people ᧐f ɑll ages.
    Kids participate іn vikdeo games, аnd adults do, too.
    Your XBox 360 іs one ߋf the favorite games systems fοr individuals tһɑt love to һave a huge variety of video games ɑvailable to tһem,
    plus ԝho liқе to experiment with live witһ
    sⲟme otherѕ all over the worlⅾ. Ꭲhanks foг sharing yoᥙr thinking. https://www.clickergames.info/gunblood-unblocked/

  7. I’m not that much of a internet reader to be honest but your sites really nice, keep it up!
    I’ll go ahead and bookmark your site to come back later.

  8. When you fnd youгsеlf inteгested by a new career as a paralegal, there aare
    a number of choices which youll be able to consider.

    You may decide that being a ϲontract paralegal is the way in whicһ
    that you just want to pursue this field. Youll bbe able tοo begin by weughing the profesѕionals and cons of this exciting new means of working
    ᴡithin the paralеgal discipline; and you couⅼd deсidе
    that it is thhe most suitable choіce fоr you.

  9. This is my first time pay a visit at here and i am truly impressed
    to read everthing at one place. http://cartronica.pt/index.php?option=com_k2&view=itemlist&task=user&id=1208880

  10. Numeracy and the individual

    There is substantial evidence that low numeracy skills are associated with poor outcomes:

    People with poor numeracy skills are more than twice as likely to be unemployed
    Recent data by the OECD show a direct relationship between wage distribution and numeracy skills
    In OECD and UK basic skills reports, the correlation between poor numeracy and poor health is clear; data from the British Cohort Studies have shown that there is also a link between depression and poor numeracy
    Social, emotional and behavioural difficulties
    Children with these problems are more likely to struggle with numeracy, even taking into account factors such as home background and general ability
    School exclusions
    Pupils beginning secondary school with very low numeracy skills but good literacy skills have an exclusion rate twice that of pupils starting secondary school with good numeracy skills
    14-year-olds who have poor maths skills at 11 are more than twice as likely to play truant
    A quarter of young people in custody have a numeracy level below that expected of a 7-year-old, and 65% of adult prisoners have numeracy skills at or below the level expected of an 11-year-old.
    Poor numeracy is also a problem in its own right. It can affect people’s confidence and self-esteem. Research from a review of adult up-skilling in numeracy by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills has demonstrated that improving numeracy directly contributes to growth in personal and social confidence

  11. The first metric search volume is easy to spot and understand. The query “Daytona Beach restaurants” gets searched 1,900 times per month on average. You can see on the above green bar graph that some months get much more searches than others. Knowing the trends for your keywords is a huge competitive advantage.

    The second metric clicks per search only gets clicked 1,200 times per month. Notice that this is 700 less clicks that search volume of 1,900 per month. The keyword “Daytona Beach restaurants” is only getting clicked 63% of the time. This metric can also work the other way, some keywords have more clicks than searches.

    The third metric keyword difficulty (often called KD) is 5, which is a low score. This is great because the lower the KD, the easier the keyword is to rank for. With a KD of 5, you’ll need backlinks from around 6 high quality and relevant websites to rank in top 10 for this keyword.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

Tanzania Petroleum © 2016-2017.